Урок 23. Текст.


А теперь прочтите и переведите следующий текст. Новые слова.




It is known when and how and just why Shakespeare left Statford. How can we explain this fact? Some writers think that he joined a company of actors. But it seems more natural to suppose that he left his native town because his father's business was in a bad way (1) and his own family was growing, What was natural, under the circumstances, than moving to London?

Probably he walked through Oxford ['ɔksfəd] or bought a horse, selling it when he came to London. Some writers believe that having come to the capital Shakespeare found a job at a printer's shop or a lawyer's office, but it is more probable that he found a job connected with the theatre, either as a call-boy (2) in the building itself or as one of those who held horses on which noble young men of the city came to the theatre. That he turned to the theatre rather than to business is not strange. Companies of actors had often visited Statford when William was a boy. Indeed, the people of his native town seem to have been fond of the drama. It was a time of growing interest in the theatre. When Shakespeare was born in 1564 there was not a single theatre building in London. At the time of his death, fifty-two years later, there were at least nine, because of the development of the drama.

We know almost nothing about the first six years Shakespeare spent in the capital. But is certain that he became an actor before he wrote for the stage. As an actor he was learning in the best possible school - the stage; as an author he probably tried his hand (3) by writing bits for the plays of older playwrights. Without friends, without money, with a wife and children, he became known as a writer only in 1593. His first printed works were two long poems. The poems having been published without a name on title-page, we know their author only because dedication to Earl of Southampton (4) was signed "William Shakespeare".

Both as actor and playwright, Shakespeare's fame rapidly increased after 1594; in fact, in eight years that followed he rose to the height of his powers. Juliet, Twelfth Night, As You Like It, Hamlet, Measure for Measure and other great plays, two poems and 154 sonnets. Together they are the most remarkable body (5) of work that every came from human mind.

As an actor, he did not continue to be good, and from his sonnets it is clear that he thoroughly disliked this part of work. Being tired of it, he did not appear on the stage after 1604.

Although Shakespeare made London his home/it is probable that he often visited Stratford, where his family continued to live. to 1611, at the height of his fame, he returned to Stratford twenty-six years after he had left it.

In the early spring of 1616 Shakespeare's youngest daughter, Judith-['ʤudiθ] was married. A month later he made his will and on April 23, 1616, he died. That date, April 23, was also the date on which he was born fifty-two years before. William Shakespeare was buried in a fine old church a Stratford and over the place where he lies, may still be seen the lines, written by himself:

"Good friend, for Jesus' sake (6) forbear
To dig the dust, enclosed here;
Blessed be the man that spares these stones
And cursed be he that moves my bones."

The bodies of many great Englishmen lie buried at Westminster Abbey in the capital of England. Bur, because of these lines, the grave of William Shakes-peare in the beautiful church by the river he loved has remained unopened.

After What We Know About Shakespeare
by Samuel Thurber and Adelaide Whitham


(1) in a bad way - было в плохом состоянии

(2) a call-boy (2) мальчик, вызывающий актера на сцену (ср. call в уроке 4)

(3) tried his hand пробовал свои силы, упражнялся

(4) Earl [ə:l] of Southampton [sauθ'æmptən] Граф Соутгемптон, меценат эпохи Елизаветы I

(5) body зд. имеет значение масса, объем

(6) for Jesus' ['ʤi:zəs] sake... - ради Иисуса... Сочетание for ... sake означает ради. Между этими словами ставятся существительные или местоимения, отвечающие на вопрос чей? Например: Do it for his sake. -Сделайте это ради него. Do it for children's sake. - Сделайте это ради детей.

Даем дословный перевод всей стихотворной эпитафии:

"Добрый Друг, ради Христа, воздержись
раскапывать прах погребенного здесь.
Благословен будь человек, который пощадит эти камни.
И проклят тот, кто потревожит эти кости".

Анализ слов

Слова author, company по значению аналогичны русским словам автор, компания. Сравните также следующие английские слова с их родственниками в русском языке: family семья (ср. фамилия, семейное имя), human человеческий (ср. гуманизм, человеколюбие); office кон-тора (ср. официальный). Существительное capital означает столица, а также капитал. Title заглавие может также означать титул. Глагол to sign подписывать и существительное a sign знак восходят к латинскому signum знак, т.е. к корню, который мы видим в русских словах сигнал, сигнализировать.

Сравнивая слово grave могила с русским словом гроб, заметьте не только внешнее сходство, но и различие в значении.

Заметьте многозначное слово shop магазин, мастерская, цех, глагол to shop значит ходить по магазинам за покупками.

Некоторые новые слова состоят из известных вам элементов; сравните development развитие с to develop развивать; dislike не любить с like любить; lawyer юрист с law закон, право.

Существительное bit кусочек в сочетании с неопределенным артиклем приобретает значение немного; not a bit значит нисколько.

I am a bit tired. Я немного устал.

I am not a bit tired. Я вовсе не устал.

Rather выражает некоторую неопределенную степень качества и переводится довольно, несколько: His pictures are rather good. Его картины довольно хороши (неплохи); I feel rather better today. Я сегодня чувствую себя несколько лучше. Сочетание rather than выражает предпочтительность и переводится лучше чем, скорее в предложениях такого типа: They died rather than surrender. Они предпочли умереть, чем сдаться. В тексте вы читаете: that he turned to the theatre rather than to business is not strange - что он обратился к театру, а не к коммерции, не представляется странным.

О слове unopened мы говорили в разделе о причастии (см. также раздел об отрицательных приставках в уроке 14). О словах Englishman и to enclose вы читали в разделе "Словообразование"; слово sake разобрано в примечании 6.

2022 EnglSpace.com