Урок 20. Доп. материал.

?ополнительный материал дл¤ устной речи


The use of sputniks and manned (с людьми на борту) space ships for observations and photography makes it possible to organize control over the state of the environment (окружающа¤ среда). It is possible to trace dust storms covering hundreds of thousands of square miles, to find their points of origin (происхождение) and the movement of these giant "dry clouds" and other atmospheric pollutants (загр¤знители).

At present a new science - cosmic ecology - has come into being and is making great progress.

The Department of the Physics of the Atmosphere at St Petersburg University has found original methods and made instruments for the detection (обнаружение) of air pollution (загр¤знение).

One such instrument is a spectrograph with which Soviet cosmonauts to Soyuz spaceships have obtained ecologically important information.

It is possible to study from outer space not only dry land and air, but also oceans and rivers and the degree to which they are polluted by oil and other waste (отходы). Such studies of the world ocean were started from the Russian manned spaceships.


The Stenberg Institute in Moscow has published the third and last part of its atlas of the Moon.

The first appeared in 1960 and included data from the photographs sent back to Earth by the Luna-3 moon probe (зонд) which made it possible to see for the fust time the hidden side of the moon.

The second part, in 1967, contained pictures transmitted by Zond-3, and the new one has photographs made by Zonds 6, 7 and 8.

The pictures are remarkably clear, showing much detail of the Monn's surface.

It is now clear that the mountains near the south lunar pole are over six miles high.

The volume also contains much explanatory matter (по¤снени¤) - tables, diagrams and figures - and a list of over 100 famous people after whom places have been named (в честь которых были названы) on the hidden side of the moon.


Seeds of Canadian spruce (канадска¤ ель) from the USA which have been in outer space have been planted in the main botanical garden of the Academy of Sciences.

They are part of the seed exchanged (обмененные) during the Soyuz-Appollo space link-up (стыковка).

Alexei Leonov and Valery Kubasov handed (передали) their American colleagues (коллеги) seeds of pines (сосны) from the Volga region, larches (лиственницы) from Tuva, firs (ели) from Northern Caucasus and cedars (кед-ры) from Siberia. Thomas Stafford, Vance Brand and Donald Slayton gave the Russian cosmonauts seeds of Wisconsin spruce.

Each country is planting the other county's seeds in the hope that they will grow into string trees, a living reminder (живое напоминание) of peaceful cooperation between two great nations.


The greatest talkers are the least doers.
The empty vessels make the greatest noise.
At open doors dogs come in.
Scalded (ошпаренна¤) dog fears cold water.


Man is the measure of all things.
Protagoras (Greece, 481-411 B.C.)

When a man has no longer any conception of excellence above las own (1), his voyage is done, he is dead.
Henry Ward Beecher (USA, 1813-1887)

He has the right to criticize who (2) has the heart to help.
Abraham Lincoln (USA, 1809-1865)


(1) conception of excellence above his own - представление о том, что его кто-нибудь может превзойти

(2) Ќе has ... who ... - только тот имеет .... кто ..

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